A common problem in orthodontic practice is that teeth cannot be left in new positions. Can protein prevent teeth from moving in the mouth?
In the body, some proteins act as small keys that unlock cells and tell them to perform specific tasks. Now, dental school research shows that protein, adiponectin, may affect tooth movement in the teeth. Researcher Sigrid Hawgen and his colleagues investigated this phenomenon.
Adiponectin – an important protein
Signaling molecules are called hormones as a key factor in initiating our body processes. Hormones are produced in many parts of the body. For example, the pancreas produces insulin, which is important for blood sugar regulation. The ovaries and testes produce sex hormones, and the thyroid produces two growth hormones. It is known that glands, bone marrow, and certain parts of the brain produce hormones. However, the fact that adipose tissue produces hormones and is therefore an endocrine organ is not equally known. Adipose tissue actually produces many different hormones. The first to be described is leptin and adiponectin.
Adiponectin plays an important role in sugar and fat metabolism, but it may also have other important functions in the body, and in some cases it can help reduce inflammation, for example in cardiovascular diseases.
In 2004, Reseland and colleagues discovered that adiponectin is present in bone cells, not only in osteoblasts, in the cells that synthesize bone, but also in osteoclasts, which also break down bone tissue. Both cell types help maintain bone mass and bone strength.
In orthodontic tooth movement, our goal is to move the tooth to the correct position. When the teeth move in the mouth, its shin bone moves with the help of bone cells? In short, the teeth are pulled by the osteoclasts, one side of the osteoclasts breaks down the bones, and the other side is formed by the osteoblasts, which push the bone-building cells in the same direction.
A question arises; “Does adiponectin affect tooth movement?”
Use a rat model to study this problem. The team used 24 rats, each of which had a braces mounted on the same tooth and located in the same position in the mouth. Rats were then divided into three groups. When one group received low-dose adiponectin that was injected before moving teeth, the other group received a high dose of adiponectin at the same location. The last group was a control group and these rats were injected with saline solution.
She explained: “In control rats injected with saline solution, this was successful, not adiponectin.”
The team found that in rats injected with adiponectin, the teeth moved less than the control group. In the group receiving high-dose adiponectin, the tooth did not move at all, and in the group receiving low-dose adiponectin, the tooth movement was much smaller than in the control group.
This means that something happens in the bone cells to prevent the teeth from moving.
If we intend to use it in the future in orthodontics or dentistry, the fact that the active substance has only a partial effect is important.
Exciting new directions
Interestingly, studies have shown that the movement of teeth in these models can be affected and the results suggest that in the future we will be able to use injectable substances to regulate the speed of tooth movement.